European Frog-bit Management

Management of European frog-bit is essential to mitigate harm and ensure this aquatic invasive species does not continue to spread throughout the Great Lakes ecosystem. The European Frog-bit Collaborative has developed resources to aid managers including summarizing information on current management techniques.

Management Techniques


Removal of European Frog-bit by hand can be augmented by using small handheld rakes. Hand removal is generally used for smaller known populations and is labor intensive. Handing pulling is most effective in early spring to summer before the plant has had time to grow significantly. 

Mechanical Removal

European Frog-bit can be removed mechanically, typically with large equipment like a harvester.


Several different herbicides with varying modes and speeds of action have been used to treat European Frog-bit. Herbicides that have been used to chemically treat EFB include:

  • Diquat
  • Flumioxazin 
  • Endothall


Covering a patch of European Frog-bit with a shade cloth can be effective at inhibiting growth and spread. By blocking essential light penetration the plant can no longer germinate and/or grow.


While various insects, mollusks, rodents, birds and fish can feed on European Frog-bit, the approval process for release any of these organisms for EFB management has not yet occurred United States or Canada.

Standard Treatment Impact Monitoring Protocol (STIMP)

What is STIMP?

The Standard Treatment Impact Monitoring Protocol (STIMP) records 1) pre- and post-treatment data on EFB over entire treatment and untreated control area, 2) pre-and post-treatment data on EFB from circular plots subjectively located in treatment and untreated control area, and 3) data on the treatment of EFB in treatment areas. It is designed so that data gathered from both treatment and untreated control areas can be used to determine potential treatment impacts to EFB and non-target aquatic plants species, identify control techniques and strategies that need further investigation, provide preliminary data on EFB distribution, reproductive biology and phenology, and habitat requirements, and summarize where, by whom, and how EFB is being managed on the local, state, and basin-wide scales.

How to Access STIMP

The STIMP is currently being housed by the Midwest Invasive Species Information Network (MISIN). Contact MISIN’s data manager to request access:

Proper disposal methods

When physically removing EFB, be sure to properly dispose of removed plants. Locate and contact your relevant local, state, or provincial invasive species management organization using this Invasive Species Management Areas Lookup Tool to assist you in understanding proper EFB disposal methods.

Resources & Publications

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